Neonatology is a subspecialty of pediatrics that comprises the medical care of newborn infants, particularly the ill or premature newborn. Being a hospital-based specialty, it is provided in neonatal intensive care unit. The principal patients are newborn infants who are ill or need special medical care due to prematurity, intrauterine growth restriction, low birth weight, or birth defects.
The following care is provided:
- Diagnose and treat newborns with conditions such as breathing disorders, infections, and birth defects.
- Coordinate care and medically manage newborns born premature, critically ill, or in need of surgery.
- Ensure critically ill newborns receive proper nutrition for healing and growth.
- Stabilize and treat newborns with any life-threatening medical problems.
- Consult with obstetricians, pediatricians, and family physicians about conditions affecting newborn infants.