Neonatology is a subspecialty of paediatrics that comprises the medical care of new-born infants, particularly the ill or premature new-born. Being a hospital-based specialty, it is provided in neonatal intensive care unit. The principal patients are new-born infants who are ill or need special medical care due to prematurity, intrauterine growth restriction, low birth weight, or birth defects. 

The following care is provided:


  • Diagnose and treat new-borns with conditions such as breathing disorders, infections, and birth defects.
  • Coordinate care and medically manage new-borns born premature, critically ill, or in need of surgery.
  • Ensure critically ill new-borns receive proper nutrition for healing and growth.
  • Stabilize and treat new-borns with any life-threatening medical problems.
  • Consult with obstetricians, paediatricians, and family physicians about conditions affecting new-born infants.